Why is it essential to provide a centralized database for both single and multiple users?

ProofEasy has mastered the art of database innovation and up-gradation


The world has entered a spiral in this scenario of digitalization. As hackers adore business more, the contrary is likely to happen ever. And with these emerging cybercrime activities, every existing website, server, and client node, be it on-site or off-site, demands the optimum security to sustain. Companies like FAANGs that exist with the most significant security have also been attacked by cyber criminals many times. And with whopping statistical figures of billions of records stolen every year, businesses need to establish defense before encountering any threat.
And to corroborate the maximum protection, they need to protect their data first, which can only be done by setting a seal on the database. The best solution is to generate a centralized database.
Now, let’s dive deep into the concept of the centralized database:
  • What is a centralized database?
    As the name implies, a centralized database is a mainframe computer located at a single location. It is primarily a desktop or a server CPU that is maintained and redesigned at that particular location. Using a centralized database is an effective way for businesses to combine all other internal units under one central unit. This central unit controls the flow of comprehensive data and resources for all business areas. It safeguards the complete data management system and removes any redundancy present in the documents. It is mainly operated using an internet connection such as LAN or WAN.
    These databases are accessible to:
    1. Direct and Run
    2. Update
    3. Backup
    4. Here, the database search will display the result faster as the search engines wouldn’t have to look to multiple locations. For instance, to find a particular business contact, the primary database directory can be searched instead of hovering through different departments.
    • What is a single-user database system, and why is it needed?
      One person can only access a single user database system at a time. This provides that user the right to use all the resources available at that moment. In these systems, both the application layer and the physical layer are administered by that single user. For instance, permission for personal computers is wholly granted to the administrator of that system. Similar is the case with android or iPhone.
      These systems lack the feature of multiprogramming, which is why the CPU executes a single process at a time. They can also be closed off without any prior warning if the network fails. Some examples include Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, and Windows 2000 professional.
    • What is a multiuser database system, and why is it needed?
      Contrary to the single-user system approach, the multiuser system grants database access to more than one user at a time. For instance, bank/university databases, insurance agencies, stock exchanges, supermarkets, etc. These systems are borne with the concept of multiprogramming, in which multiple users can perform specific tasks at a certain period.
        The functioning of multiuser systems for two or more processes take place in the following order:
        1. At first, commands from process A are executed, which are then suspended from operating controls from process B. And so on.
        2. The preceding processes, such as A, revive from their suspension once their request to use the CPU again are returned and reloaded from the exact point that they were suspended.
        This interleaving property of processes to run concurrently helps the CPU to run in its idle time. Thus, increasing its productivity. This also prevents the delaying of other procedures due to an inevitably lengthy process. And if the system possesses multiple CPUs, then parallel processing can occur as well. Some multiuser systems are Unix, Linux, and mainframes, such as the IBM AS400. This also involves minicomputers.
    • Features of a centralized database system
      Businesses of all sizes own separate databases for each department. But a centralized database reduces this redundancy, monotony and adds an ease of access of data. Furthermore, the network is boosted with the following features:
    • Acts as a global clock:
      As the complete apparatus consists of the main computer and multiple client computers, the client nodes are connected to the clock of the master node so that every process runs according to the schedule. This gives a centralized database the feature of ‘time-sharing.’
    • Dependency: If the server fails, the database would shut and become inaccessible to the client nodes. This may result in data loss if the server isn’t backed up but would prevent data theft otherwise.
    • Central Unit Response: All the clients send the trade or usual business requests to the server and respond accordingly.
    • Cross-functional Projects: Removes unnecessary need of administrative layer every time a process has to be executed.
    • Communication with analysts: This feature removes data silos, and it becomes easier to share the idea across the analytics team as there are different analysts assigned to other groups. A centralized database can put them together on a team, giving way for improved communication.
    • High dependability: Each team will have access to the business chatter of all channels as they all will be entered. In turn, they increase their reliability and fear of risking the system at any point in time.
    Other features include reduced conflicts, focused vision, and rising mission.

    Stating the advantages/disadvantages of a centralized database:

    There are pros and cons of every action in business. Though centralized databases exist with enhanced attributes, they also possess few risks. However, expanded focus and proper functioning can alleviate the perils.
    • Increased Integrity: Data integrity is the premium quality a business can hold onto. As the data does not get dispersed across multiple sites, its overall accuracy, completeness, and consistency are ensured. Also, redundancy cannot be seen anywhere.
    • Reduced Duplicity: Data stored in a single location cannot distribute itself or be distributed by any other sources/user. This prevents the copies of data from being spread outer of the framework.
    • Secured Data: This database has a high level of security associated as the protocols are set by the authorities managing the business. This way, they can monitor the data, and any amount of leakage can be saved.
    • Cost-Effective: A centralized database requires less amount of power and is maintained comparatively less than distributed databases. Therefore, it saves the wastage of money.
    • Easy Implementation: Since all the data is in one place, the required modification can be done only once instead of doing it multiple times at multiple locations. This gives rise to the efficiency of all the operations that are carried out. For instance, the data resources used for a single function can be used again for another business goal.
    • Improved Communication: With a centralized system, all teams are focused on it, which instills the power of teamwork and flexibility in business. Employees don’t shy away from sharing their ideas. This results in faster implementation of strategies, removal of extra data layers, and vague barriers in the decision-making process.
  • Reduced efficiency: As multiple users can access only a single database, the searching may take too much time due to the increased traffic. And if the network becomes slow, then it would become a mess as efficiency would reach to be negligible.
  • Data Loss: In the case of server and database failure, the data loss may be generated. If the staff is smart enough to have a backup, the business can be saved from being a total wreck. Data collision is also a potential reason for data loss.
  • Inaccurate Data: Incomplete or wrong data details can put the business and employees’ lives at more considerable risk. The expense of rectifying the data can cost the company a fortune, and it would become strenuous to begin again. Other disadvantages are low location-based adaptability, adverse effect on the business morale, limited planning for goal succession. It also limits the possibility and legitimacy of the feedback to be received.
  • Centralized Vs. Distributed Database Systems:

    • What is a distributed database system?
      Another type of database system is a distributed database system placed in various sites or in a network of computers that don’t share the same physical components. These databases are usually shared by users globally and are managed so that it appears a single framework for them all.
        1. There are two types of distributed databases:
        2. Heterogeneous database: As this database consists of different sites using different applications or schemas, they may be unaware of each other’s actions and data models. Hence, translation is required for them to communicate with each other.
          As a result, colossal difficulty in query and transaction processing can be seen.
        3. Homogeneous database: Unlike heterogeneous, these sites are found to store the central database simultaneously. And they are a piece of cake when managing as their operating systems, management, and the data structures used are all similar.

      When it comes to saving the data in distributed databases, the following are the two main approaches:

      1. Data Replication: This is a form of storing the data redundantly, i.e., making multiple copies of the entire database available at all sites. This proves to be proficient as the queries can be processed in parallel due to data now becoming omnipresent.
        However, the data needs to be updated frequently, and the changes made at any site need to be recorded. The contrary may lead to an overall inconsistency resulting in overhead. Besides, the degree of concurrency at various sites goes way over control.
      2. Data Fragmentation: In this approach, the primary relationship is divided into smaller parts to store each component at its desired location. It is fragmented so that it can be reconstructed into the whole without losing any data.
        Here consistency is also not a significant concern as it doesn’t create any copies of data. This procedure can further be segregated into two: Splitting by rows, Splitting by column.
    • How are these two databases different?
      Centralized and distributed databases are both effective in their way. It depends on the businesses to acquire the approach they find suitable for their enterprise.
      Centralized database
      1. Distributed Database
        • Comparatively, fast managing, updating and backing up of data of the central database file.
        • It takes more time to synchronize the data because of multiple database files.
        • Users lose access to the database once it fails.
        • Users can access other database files even if one fails.
        • It provides the user with increased data consistency and transparency of the entire database view.
        • Inconsistency occurs in data due to its multiple copies.
        • More time is required to access database files as multiple users pry on one.
        • Has higher speed in accessing data as the user can access the file from the nearest database.

    After analyzing the differences, it is highly recommended to use a centralized approach as it arises the very essence of the business.
    It is equivalent to how we like to organize our tasks through excel sheets, make to-do lists to complete daily tasks, and keep all our documents in one place to create superfluity.

    • Why is it better to have a database in a business than no database at all?
      One of the main reasons many businesses fall out of the race is this unappreciated gesture of having a structured database. Without this attribute embedded in their departments, it’s all meant to go down.
      Ergo, it is thoughtful of businesses who install a centralized database system in their business over distributed databases or no databases. Owing to this fact, they achieve the below-mentioned features:
      1. Easy tracking of information: Businesses run because of the billions of customers they attract. So, the needs of the customer, new trends become a commodity to keep track of. Besides other crucial tasks like tracking inventory, customer purchases, fashion/ sales trends to handle rigorous planning.
      2. Supervised data files: Only with the help of big chunks of data overflowed from the internet each data enterprise can analyze and predict the sales graph, brand value, and peer competition. But all of this takes much more time than expected at times. Hence, the data files are to be stored and recorded efficiently to reduce this daunting task if re-needed.
      3. Report Customisation: Reports are a great way to demonstrate the growth and losses of the business in the market. It gives a reality check of the revenue and market spend by accumulating all the particulars. Centralizing the figures of additional product units needed is also mandatory.
      4. Internal sharing of knowledge: Teamwork is a precious jewel that every business has to possess. This saves time, the energy of the staff and increases seamless resource-sharing. Without it, the departments and respective employees would lack the attribute of decision making. This may affect the business goals.
      5. Implementation of new strategies: You must have heard and examined the phrase, ‘Change is always constant. You must also know that business that is open to additional risk and performance analysis is faster to highlight the solution to their failures/needs. Executive, authorities, or management must be aware of how and how their businesses are impacting the market and the environment. And also, they must be willing to accept the consequences.

    A centralized database can manage all this traffic with web and walk-in traffic for your business. It also provides the flexibility of how to handle the system. Be it on-site or off-site. It will lay out better utility and accessibility to all business contacts, purchases, and supply chains.

    • Which system contributes to data security more and how?
      To state the centralized databases control all the material and documentation of purchasing, sales, finance, and HR of a business. This single storage location adds the thickest layer of security to the enterprise as there is only one way to ingress.
      These databases reduce the possibility of the following statistics showing the risks to corporations:
      1. Every 14 seconds, a business is a prey to a ransomware attack destroying most of the essential files.
      2. 4800 websites, on an average, are attacked with form-jacking code every month.
      3. 43% of attacks are eyed on small businesses as they are the most naïve in the business sector.

    Most Importantly, it has been visualized that it takes up to half a year to track a data breach in the system. And having multiple external security providers to strengthen your infrastructure can, in turn, create more vulnerabilities. Hence, to save the team a ton of trouble, a central unit is better than losing all the data to phishing attacks and random security advisors. As it is internalized, you can set your own rules, regulations, and access points.

    • How ProofEasy designs a centralized database?
      From software product development, instigating solutions to integrate the enterprise ecosystems, ProofEasy has set quite the benchmark. To ensure that the business gets a centralized database with future-proofing, ProofEasy circles out the most significant vulnerabilities in the system and prepares the following blueprint:
      1. Solution Overview: This is a way to analyze an organization’s workflow, and its components can be transferred from one position to another for centralization. It also includes applying customization to existing methods.
      2. Problem Statement: It involves tracking issues, identifying the desired output, and any system hiccups, if present.
      3. Proposed Solution: A customized solution considering each unit of the business and business areas is proposed forward.
      4. System Architecture Overviewvert all this into a relational database.
      5. Logical Data Design: This is the step where the relational database is created, including well-structured tables. These tables are designed to reflect business entities and any foreign key in a non-redundant manner.
      6. Development Platform: This platform increases the robustness of the database by using prior knowledge and developing it into a new structure. It adds improvement to the system security with a combined risk-based approach. Graphics and visual interfaces are also embedded into this platform to give a luxurious experience to the customers.
      7. Deployment Platform: This is a focal point of execution where the steps, as mentioned earlier, are operated to gain a complete picture of the created molecule. It is the step where the setup is installed.
      8. High-level Functional requirement: This is the preliminary list of needs prepared for the reader/ customers to understand the framework. It sets an overall picture of the system in the reader’s mind without involving the programming part—for example, decision points, loops, etc.
      9. High-level non-functioning requirements: This is a list that satisfies the following properties of the system: security, usability, performance, availability, etc.

    All these steps are accumulated into a process to foster a strong foundation for the business database.

    • How is it different for both the user-type systems?
      After extensive research and substantial experience, ProofEasy has built best fit services for any business model. Whether be it single user or multiuser system, ProofEasy applies their best-fixed approach:
      1. Identifying the type of ecosystem: ProofEasy detects the gaps and breaks in an enterprises’ mainframe and presents a solution proposal accordingly. For a single user, only the viruses and bugs from the external websites hindering the personal desktop experience are investigated.
        For multiple users, the factors such as different security vendors, multiple client nodes access, data distribution are kept in check, and the databases are designed accordingly.
      2. Requirements are analyzed: For multiuser systems, ProofEasy does all the challenging tasks on their behalf. It develops an understanding of your business model and all the impacts that it experiences. This way, it scrutinizes market changes, security threats and offers customized solutions that lead to better business upshots.
        It controls the software maintenance activity, speed and saves it from any malware or ransomware attack for single-user systems.
      3. Smooth Implementation of Projects: Both Database systems gain smooth functioning with ProofEasy’s web, mobile app, and backend services.
      • How is it different from traditional approaches?
        To get ahead of the competitors, every business must inspect its services and growth over the past few years. But some corporations are not entirely able to develop the market, stock, investment understanding and soon suffer the downfall. This is all an outcome of failed statistics, poor team management, and incomplete data that continuously makes its way deeper into the organization without a proper management system.

    Traditional Approach: Even after proliferation in data thefts, identity frauds, unachieved goals, many businesses do not leave the ease of management provided by third parties. This ease, however, has resulted in numerous incidents of breaches and leaked information. The meddling of any business partner, supplier, or security vendor in data validation, verification, supply chain tracking, network logging are all attributes of traditional approaches.
    Below are few alarming statistics involving third parties:

        1. 74% of companies are unaware of the third parties associated with them and are accessing their personal information.
        2. 64% of executives agreed to have faced threats and misuse of data due to these risks.
        3. To disorient the systems, attackers have to go through 4.6 devices, including VPN, firewalls, directories, and many more, putting all your devices at risk.

    ProofEasy Approach: alleviates any tiniest need of third parties with their out-of-the-box solution approach, i.e., the blockchain technology. It builds interoperable solid systems whose interfaces are in great unison with proprietary, legacy, and other methods. This decreases the imposed restrictions and results in better execution.

    In Conclusion

    In this digital era, the world has become interconnected in various forms, which have given birth to widespread cybercrime. From using a card at a store to borrowing a book from the library, data is a liability that cannot be dealt with meekly. Even with the mobile apps, every individual gets his hands-on. There are over 24000 malicious attacks that expose their online activity. These activities, online passwords, personal details, passport details, business revenue norms are violated and spread over the dark web.
    For single-user systems, the credentials of the user accessing their desktop are at risk. But for the multiuser system, the credentials of each working at the facility are under the radar of cyber-attackers. Since this information is stored in the company’s database, it becomes easy to track it all. And if it’s scattered, it becomes increasingly arduous for the staff to backtrack the criminal source.
    Therefore, it is best advised to centralized the corporate data at a central unit that experienced and authorized professionals can only access. In case of any theft in the centralized database, only these authorities will be questioned. Hence the process of identifying the malware source would become relatively easy.
    For every type of system, ProofEasy has mastered the art of database innovation and up-gradation. It implants its critical features into the system:

    1. Trusted reference points for an immutable and verifiable architecture will keep the original documentation intact and make it unalterable.
    2. Easy adoption and facilitation of submission requests and their approvals. Generation with no learning phase and simple process of document drag or drop. It will enhance transparency and visibility.
    3. Instant verification to ensure data authenticity can now be done with the help of QR code technology. It is enabled for scanned and digital documents and can be performed on any smart device.
    4. It maintained data integrity with the assistance of blockchain and hash technologies. This increases the customer’s trust in a specific service as it rules out the existence of frauds. It also enables decentralization in terms of access responsibilities.
    5. Real-time operations will become the top feature of your business, saving you time and energy and will deliver modern, highly functional results. They are moreover elevating the validity.
    6. Be it educational certificates, financial collateral, legal reports, mortgage documents, or any other sensitive entity. It will become tamper-proof in no time. It will remain intact for a longer duration.
    7. HR TimeSheet Management is to track the employee activities and predict if someone is posing as a false employee or a ghost employee. HR can use this opportunity to their best and create dashboards to see when employees are punching in.
    8. It also has a factor of supply chain management that keeps logistics, goods delivery in check. The breaks in the distribution network are distilled.

    ProofEasy has yielded coherence in businesses by creating API integrated platforms, cloud-based environments to associate business with suppliers, connected community portals to accomplish customer needs, enhanced existing appointment tracking systems. Moreover, they leverage their services to both single-user and multiuser systems. Therefore, it is best to consult ProofEasy and have the best agile methodologies, customer collaboration framework, hybrid team, and engineered excellence in your enterprise.
    Its approach is most beneficial to pharmaceutical industries, legal contractors, food and beverages, etc., where multi-users exist. Don’t wait and find the right balance and sustainable growth within your organization with ProofEasy.